Sixth B.I.O. International Conference, Athens, July 1994
International Sakharov Festival
The International Sakharov Festival, with Theme Biopolitics – the Bio-Environment – Bio-Culture in the Next Millennium, took place in Athens, July 28-31, 1994, and constituted the VIth international conference held by the Biopolitics International Organisation. Upon completion of the conference, the following resolution was unanimously adopted:
In order to curb the destruction of biological species, habitats and ecosystems, and progress toward a biocentric society, it is essential to recognise the cumulative threats to bios, and the urgent need for a global and holistic approach to combating them. Therefore, all participants agree to promote and implement all resolutions and deliberations adopted by previous B.I.O. conferences, and pledge complete support to the following recommendations:
The international community should create a sound ethical foundation for the work of protecting bios, firmly rooted in major local communities, and respecting indigenous cultures and their educational systems. Measures also need to be taken toward achieving greater social justice on a global level. It is thus imperative to inform, and most importantly, to influence those involved in decision-making processes, i.e., government officials, financial institutions, corporations, universities, research center s, in order to have a society made up of responsible and affected citizens.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL OLYMPICS – BIOS PRIZES
Environmental Protection at the Core of Every Human Endeavour
We are on the threshold of a new millennium. In order to overcome the crisis of values in modern society, brought on by severe environmental deterioration, a new order of priorities is essential. Due to serious threats to the environment, the gift of bios is endangered. Everyone has to take action if we are to reverse negative trends and ensure the harmonious coexistence of all forms of life. Humanity is wasting time. Solving environmental problems requires a dynamic approach, combining past experience and present opportunities to establish new, enriched models for the future. In 1992, as an effort to raise the necessary awareness of the urgent need for environmental action and promote new incentives for environmental protection, B.I.O. proposed the enrichment of the Olympic Games with new biocentric values.
Presently, the Olympic Games, a beacon for world peace and hope, are limited to physical achievement. However, this restricts the potential of the “Olympic Spirit,” a concept that should evolve to encompass all possible accomplishments, both physical and intellectual. As a result, the B.I.O. has proposed the establishment of international committees in every field of human endeavour, assigned to assess progress in their respective fields. Bios Prizes in each field will be awarded every four years, at the time the Olympic Flame is lit, to individuals or institutions that have contributed to the preservation and appreciation of the bio-environment.
Furthermore, the B.I.O. has been actively promoting global cease-fire during the Olympic Games, as was the case in antiquity. The B.I.O. cease-fire proposal has been recently adopted as a resolution by the UNA of Sri Lanka.
1.1 Jacques-Yves Cousteau – First Bios Prize Recipient
On the occasion of the 1996 summer Olympic Games, the First Bios Prize Award will be given to Commander Jacques-Yves Cousteau, who will not only be the first, but also, the only Bios Prize recipient for this century, emphasising his invaluable contribution to the comprehension and appreciation of the bio-environment. Commander Cousteau was the first to explore the limitless biodiverisity of the planet’s oceans and raise awareness of the most important task of protecting and preserving this biodiversity. He has worked tirelessly to further the idea of protecting life on our planet and, through groundbreaking research, has continuously offered unique information on the intricacies and beauty of bios. As the century is drawing to a close, his achievements represent one of the most positive contributions to humanity. We are not only witnessing the turn of the century, but we are on the doorstep of a new millennium. By awarding the First Bios Prize to Commander Cousteau, the B.I.O. hopes to set the pace for a millennium of hope, understanding and harmonious co-existence of all forms of life.
UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF SRI LANKA
Resolution calling for the suspension of armed conflict both inter-state and civil during the International Olympic Games, once every four years and for a month thereafter.
The United Nations Association of Sri Lanka
AWARE of the practice in ancient Greece where all hostilities between city states were suspended during the period the Olympic Games were in progress
CONCERNED that the community of nations, while paying lip service to the Greek ideals engage in civil and inter-state conflicts with unprecedented loss of life and property
CONSCIOUS that there is an increasing body of world public opinion that sees a glaring contradiction between the ideals of sportsmanship and the dehumanising demands and consequences of all forms of modern warfare
CALLS UPON the International Olympic Committee, as the first step toward a globally operative cease-fire, to accept and implement the proposal made by the Biopolitics International Organisation of Athens, Greece that, commencing from the next Olympiad, all civil and inter-state conflicts be suspended during the period during which the games are in progress and for one month thereafter.
2. BIO-EDUCATION FOR ALL
The Goal of Achieving Environmentally Literate Global Citizens
It is crucial to establish a bio-environmental education that will cut through barriers and incorporate all academic fields, in co-operation with every sector of society. Critical thinking at all educational levels should be a top priority, in order to implement the necessary reforms and achieve the desired results. As part of ongoing efforts to raise awareness of the importance of protecting human and bios rights, it is necessary to unite the efforts of scientists, scholars, religious leaders, politicians, diplomats and business people, all over the world.
2.1 International University for the Bio-Environment
It is reaffirmed that the bio-environment should be the first priority on educational curricula, and that environmental education activities have to be targeted towards all age groups. Within the framework of the B.I.O. and the International University for the Bio-Environment (I.U.B.E.), a Committee on Bio-Education and the Strategy of Biopolitics needs to be assembled. This Committee will be responsible for:
– implementing programmes on bio-education
– organising lectures, workshops and seminars, aimed at every educational level
– defining the basic core of educational curricula, and incorporating interdisciplinary elements into every educational programme. Environmental education will thus become the major link among all disciplines in all nations
– organising action oriented programmes with the intention of raising public awareness
In view of the great impact of the Bio-Syllabus (published in 1992) as a guideline for an integrated environmental education world-wide, it is important to expand existing topics, develop new ones and introduce practical approaches for hands-on training.
It is essential to apply innovative educational plans and tools, such as films, books, art projects, or computer games, aimed at every educational level. Educational programmes on the bio-environment, should be established on television and radio networks. These programmes should be broadcast via satellite throughout the world and ensure environmental education that will reach a global audience quickly and efficiently.
The B.I.O. should encourage key educational leaders around the world to undertake thorough reviews of their curricula, with a view to recommend scientific and acceptable measures that would warrant multi-disciplinary and/or interdisciplinary approaches established at the core of all areas of specialisation.
An examination of existing materials and publications is required, in order to enhance the information-exchange service of the I.U.B.E. This includes establishing an exclusive library center , to strengthen the technologies and capacities necessary to promote co-operation, research and information-sharing on environmental preservation.
A World Academic Board of Scientists needs to be established. Within the framework of the I.U.B.E., existing educational institutions are encouraged to create programmes for visiting professors, so that B.I.O. scholars can promote bio-environmental values.
The I.U.B.E. should maintain a continuous monitoring system to assess its objectives, in order to learn the extent of its successes and shortcomings in the direction of progressive growth and development. To promote international co-operation and the better understanding of cultural diversity, the I.U.B.E. should strive to collaborate with various international organisations. In order to ensure the satisfactory global circulation of socio-economic, cultural and demographic information for bio-environmental education, a permanent budgetary outlay must be provided annually by the B.I.O.
It is recommended that the I.U.B.E. develop model training courses on bio-ethics, bio-economy and bio-diplomacy aimed at different groups, such as children, students, and administrators. These courses should be internationally co-ordinated. An International B.I.O. certificate could be awarded for completion of such courses. The B.I.O. could co-operate closely with UNESCO to integrate bio-educational concepts in the IEEP (International Environmental Education Programme) of UNESCO-UNEP.
2.2 Bio-Diplomacy – Bio-Legislation
The B.I.O. should be actively involved in the study of the phenomena of war, peace, and conflict resolution. Within the framework of international co-operation for the protection and appreciation of bios, Biopolitics has been promoting the concept of bio-diplomacy. Bio-diplomacy recognises that cultural differentiation constitutes the wealth of the body of humanity. Furthermore, humanity is part of the overall body of bios, where DNA, the genetic code for every living organism, is the link connecting all forms of life. This unifying aspect is being promoted as the primary target for the implementation of international co-operation for the respect and maintenance of biodiversity.
– In the spirit of international co-operation, the B.I.O. should register with the United Nations.
– An international network of non-governmental organisations (NGO’s) could be established, in order to monitor and enforce relevant treaties on the bio-environment.
– An International Board of Bio-Diplomats should be established. Workshops for diplomats could be organised to negotiate strategies and alternatives for the preservation of the environment.
– Special informational and financial support needs to be given to developing countries in order to promote clean technologies and avoid the risk of large-scale environmental catastrophe.
2.3 International and Domestic Law for the Protection of Bios Rights
The concepts of family, peace, education, culture and religion are promoted by the B.I.O. as essential societal values for the next millennium. In memory of Andrei Sakharov, one of the most ardent humanitarians of our time, we need to expound the fundamental human right of living in a clean environment. As a result, it is crucial to stress the importance of including bio-environmental protection in an overall framework of rights.
Limited work has been done on the relationship between bios rights and international humanitarian law. Bios rights could find essential protective provisions in the Geneva Law (and related protocols) and especially the proposed new Geneva Convention on the environment. Primary goals need to include:
– international agreements on the bio-environment, with precise and clear obligations to reach concerted global policies, imposed on states
– government recognition of the need to compromise sovereignty in order to maintain environmental protection. International law experts could be called upon to put pressure on governments to immediately implement international treaties relating to the bio-environment
– international collaboration in order to co-ordinate critical management and conservation issues, such as controlling water pollution, managing international oil transport and protecting endangered species
– mobilisation of UN agencies such as WHO, UNEP, UNDP, UNICEF to take more effective action towards protecting the interests of bios
– assisting the ICRC and the Red Cross in formulating new legislation to protect people and the bio-environment, especially in times of conflict
– address the subject of Evolutionary Ethics
2.4 Biocentric Models for the Next Millennium
In the current crucial period of transition, society needs to adopt new models, in order to avoid static and negative prototypes, and progress toward a global bio-culture. It is imperative to redefine existing concepts, and work towards converting the present anthropocentric society into a society that respects bio-diversity and is dedicated to the preservation and appreciation of bios.
The participants of the International Sakharov Festival recommended that, in addition to its scheduled activities, the B.I.O. should also:
– list the greatest developmental and environmental failures of the century, drawing possible lessons for the future
– establish a permanent committee to build up guidelines for bio-development in the next millennium. This committee would also be responsible for defining legislative means aimed at promoting bios on a global scale
– formulate co-operative goals, strategies and action oriented programmes taking into consideration the developmental potential of every nation
– foster planned goals through regional and international co-operation in the areas of capacity building, expansion of environmentally friendly technology and the exchange of environmental information. Partnerships based on mutual understanding, as well as respect and sharing of responsibilities are highly recommended
– promote internationally accepted guidelines for biotechnological research and applications, based on bio-ethical principles, the respect for the bio-environment and the interdependence of living organisms. The Helsinki Convention could serve as a starting point
– elaborate initiatives for the application of technologies resulting from research in biology
– establish a small model city, where people would work and live according to bios-principles
2.5 Bio-Economics – Bio-Business
In western culture, profit is associated with economic activities resulting in increased income and financial prosperity. However, the concept of profit needs to be redefined, in order to include the principles of quality of life, preservation of natural resources as a measurable part of a nation’s wealth, better health and the protection of bio-diversity, which constitute a “genuine” profit for society. Corporate leaders around the world need to realise that environmental protection can become a viable and successful business strategy, and should thus be incorporated into every dimension of their activities.
Environmental administration should be conducted in the spirit of co-existence. In order to overcome greed and over-consumerism, it is essential to move beyond the antagonisms of governments, nations and business, and adopt a common responsibility to preserve the environment for the future. The Sakharov Festival stresses the importance of:
– encouraging a greater contribution from international bodies and multinational corporations for the development of environmentally friendly technologies in emerging economies
– emphasising practical and measurable projects
– developing a pro-active and progressive environmental policy for business, and encouraging corporations to adhere to the principles of bios-supporting “sustainable development,” in the spirit of proposals from organisations such as the International Chamber of Commerce
2.6 Media and Publications
In the quest for more efficient ways to promote bio-environmental education, mass media and the press can play a most valuable role. Moreover, computer networks and publications on B.I.O. activities can significantly improve the exchange of information on important bios issues. As a result, the following suggestions were put forward:
– publishing a peer-reviewed journal, themed Bio-Politica, in order to pioneer concepts in Biopolitics and bio-policy
– regularly publishing a bulletin with information on all B.I.O. activities
– establishing Internet connections and other computer networks, and compiling an inventory of all international organisations and institutions with related goals
– filming and videotaping productions on Biopolitics and bio-environmental education
– directly publicising B.I.O. aims, actions and findings to the scientific community, among policy-making circles, and to the general public
3. GRASSROOTS OPERATIONS
Alternative, innovative, practical solutions for various problems, as well as methods for their implementation, need to be researched. What is required is not another institution, but rather a grassroots operation and a mechanism which will bring Biopolitics to more people and make its goals known throughout the world.
– Bio-Groups, responsible for carrying out this operation could be established world-wide. These groups would be active within local communities, and elicit the co-operation of children and senior citizens.
– Bio-Groups would be connected internationally via a bio-network. A periodic review of progress and updating of projects is anticipated.
– Proposals developed would become part of the B.I.O. Bank of Ideas project. A data bank on the bio-environment could be established by various professional organisations to provide qualitative and analytical references for decision-makers.
4. GENETIC BANKS AS A MEANS OF PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY
Protecting biodiversity at the macro and micro level is essential in order to ensure the continuation of life on our planet. Parks and protected areas have been used extensively for the protection of flora and fauna species, and the preservation of natural habitats and biotopes. However, this approach only guarantees protection of the macro-environment. The micro-environment, that of the gene and the cell, is still in danger.
– Biopolitics proposes the creation of Genetic Banks to secure conservation of the micro-environment. In order to be effective, these Genetic Banks need to be established locally and thus help preserve genetic diversity in endemic flora and fauna.
– The role of national parks and protected areas should be recognised as natural genetic banks preserving bio-diversity. The natural and cultural value of protected areas as learning environments for the process of bio-environmental education should be strengthened.
– Transboundary protected areas may become an effective starting point for the implementation of bio-diplomacy principles.
The participants of the International Sakharov Festival express their support for the Planta Europa project aimed at conservation and the sustainable use of wild plant diversity in Europe.
5. RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREA OF FAMILY AND CHILDHOOD
– Reveal and explain the causal relationships of many dangerous illnesses, especially in children, as the result of failure to observe primary environmental rules.
– Co-operate with UNICEF in evaluating the losses suffered as a result of environmental abuse.
– Establish a publishing house for environmental literature, targeted at children, as well as adults.
– Create attractive logos and establish symbolic prizes for participation and outstanding results
6. SPECIFIC PROPOSALS
To help implement the aforementioned resolutions and recommendations, the International Sakharov Festival participants also made several practical suggestions and submitted specific proposals:
– starting at the CUB (City University Bratislava) a faculty for bio-diplomacy and the bio-environment
– establishing the Earth Science Museum of Moscow State University as a center for environmental education
– establishing, in Krakow, a Biopolis-International Center for Research, Training and Education, based on interdisciplinary case studies, land-problem solving, training, open universities, distance education and partnerships among experts, decision-makers, local societies, different professional groups, and NGO’s. This center must be sponsored by the I.U.B.E.
– scheduling special panel lectures for the general public during future conferences
6.1 Suggestions for the Promotion of B.I.O.
– combining the 50-year anniversary of the United Nations with the 10-year anniversary of the B.I.O. and using local United Nations Associations and other affiliated organisations to promote the B.I.O. ideas
– creating a B.I.O. membership organisation, the Club of Athens, to organise and co-ordinate efforts to exchange environmental information and promote a global culture, based on international co-operation in the third millennium
– devoting an international exhibition to the activities of B.I.O. and promoting biological and environmental education
– establishing a permanent B.I.O. forum
– registering B.I.O. associations, world-wide, in accordance with local law. Registration would enable them to get support from local authorities and reach more sponsors and potential members
– preparing short, multi-lingual booklets, focusing on B.I.O. activities and specifically aimed at those involved in global decision-making and policy-planning
Conference themes and participants
Greece: Biopolitics – The Bio-Environment Bio-Culture in the Next Millennium, Dr. Agni Vlavianos-Arvanitis, Founder and President, Biopolitics International Organisation
Sweden: The Presence and Essence of Bio-Diplomacy, Ambassador Kai Falkman, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Turkey: Biopolitics as a Tool for Sustainable Solidarity, Professor Rusen Keles, Director of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Political Sciences, Ankara University; International Environmental Co-operation: Retrospect and Prospect, Professor Ayse Gulgun Tuna, Department of International Relations, Bilkent University
Greece: Bio-Diplomacy as a Dimension of Bio-Culture, Ambassador Panayotis Economou, Public and International Relations Advisor, Biopolitics International Organisation; The European Parliament Sakharov Prize, George E. Saridakis, f. Member of the European Parliament
Czech Republic: Revival of the European Soul: Post-Socialist Europeans Neglected but not Negligible, Ambassador Jiri Marvan, Ambassador of the Czech Republic to Greece
Egypt: New Pathways for International Co-operation, Ambassador Ahmed Nabil El Salawy, f. Ambassador of Egypt to Greece
Greece: International and European Union Action Against Climate Change, George Strongylis, Commission of the European Union, Direction DG XI; Human Rights and the Environment: a Common Future, Panayotis Karafotias, f. Officer in Charge, United Nations Information Center
Russia: Proposals for Environmental Preservation, Yuri A. Korolev, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law
Peru: Bio-Legislation as a Solution to Environmental Problems in South America, Dr. L.E. Ruelas Lierena, United Nations Association Institute for Green Areas
Slovak Republic: Diplomacy and International Law in the Service of Biopolitics, Professor Juraj Cuth, Professor of International Law
Japan: How to Compete in the 21st Century? The Importance of an Ethical and Environmental Corporate Commitment, Dr. Gunter Pauli, Advisor to the Rector, United Nations University, The Zero Emissions Research Institute
USA: Building a Sustainable Future, Professor Nicholas Ashford, Technology and Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Exploring Links Between Business and the Environment, Dr. Julia Panourgia-Clones, Environmental Consultant, The World Bank; Resource Conservation and Utilisation: a Magnificent Opportunity, J. Patrick Nicholson, Chairman and CEO, N-Viro International Corporation
Greece: How to Escape from the Cycle of Environmental Degradation, Assimakis Fotilas, f. Head, Investments Promotion Center , UNIDO; Environmental Leadership: a New Business and Marketing Era, Panayotis Vongas; Technological Progress and the Future of Bios, Nikos Katsaros
Switzerland: The Bio-Environment as a Managerial Challenge, Dr. Peter Kalantzis, President, Lonza Ltd.
Hungary: Systems Analysis of Bio-Economy: Entropy and Negentropy in Biopolitics, Dr. Lászlo Kapolyi, President, Systems International Foundation; The Role of Economics in the Process of Sustainable Development, Professor Gyula Bora, Department of Economic Geography, Budapest University of Economic Science
Japan: From Zero Defect, through Zero Inventory, to Zero Emissions, Dr. Gunter Pauli, Advisor to the Rector, United Nations University, The Zero Emissions Research Institute
Sri Lanka: Biopolitics: a New Approach to the Politics of Sustainable Development, A. Henry Karunaratne, Honorary President, United Nations Association
Hungary: Global Environmental Change: a Vision for a Better World, Professor Hunay Evliya, Director, Center for Environmental Research, Çukurova University
Russia: The Environment and National Minorities, Dr. Reguina A. Yavchunovskaya, Academy of Creative Endeavours; Bio-Policy: Itinerary for Future Social Developments, Dr. Natalia Grigorieva, Academy of Creative Endeavours
Turkey: Bio-Architecture as a Policy for Urban Planning, Professor Ali Ozbilen, Vice Dean, Department of Landscape Architecture, KTU Faculty of Forestry
Yugoslavia: Bio-Policy: a Quantitative Analysis of the Bio-Environment, Dr. Ivana S. Djujic, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade University
Finland: The Second Industrial Revolution: a Summary, Dr. Eero Paloheimo, MP
India: Forestry: Reconciling Poverty and Equity Concerns, Dr. Kamla Chowdhry, Chairperson, Center for Science and Environment
Sudan: Co-operation for Survival, Professor Faysal Tageldim Abushama, Director, National Center for Research
Czech Republic: The Environmental Situation in Central and Eastern Europe: the Czechoslovak Example, Dr. Jaroslav Stoklasa, Environmental Advisor, Czech Academy of Sciences
Indonesia: Human Values, Modern Technology and Bio-Environmental Preservation, Professor S. Budhisantoso, Ministry of Environment
Romania: Environmental Protection and Scientific Research in Romania, Dr. Mariana Constantinescu, Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection
The Philippines: A Developing Region’s Investment in Natural Capital, Professor M. Dino Fortes, Marine Science Institute
Lithuania: Biopolitics Goals: Lithuania’s Obligations, Professor Leonardas Kairiukstis, Director of State Scientific Project ECOSLIT, Lithuanian Forest Institute
Russia: New Approaches to Environmental Management in Northwest Russia, Professor Alexander I. Shishkin, St. Petersburg State Technological University for Plant Polymers
Cambodia: The Environmental Situation in Cambodia: Policy and Instructions, Dr. Ung Phyrun, Deputy Director General, State Secretariat for Environment
Germany: Marine Biology, Pollution and the Protection of Nature, Professor Wilfried Gunkel, Former Director, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland
Turkey: The Conservation of Wetlands, Professor Aykut Kence, Chair, Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University
Romania: Reservoir Development and Exploitation for a Normal Trophic State, Dr. Emil Rus, Head, Hydraulics, Environmental Engineering Research Institute; Equilibria in Aquatic Environments, Dr.Gabriella Ivancea, Department of Aquatic Ecology, Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection
Poland: Do We Need Protected Areas in the Baltic?, Professor Anna Szaniawska and K.E. Skora, Institute of Oceanography, Gdansk University; The Baltic Sea as a Great Potential Area for Biopolitics, Dr. Eugeniusz Andrulewicz, Department of Oceanography, Marine Quality Unit, Sea Fisheries Institute
Israel: Enclosed Coastal Seas – A Case Study: the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Professor Baruch Kimor, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
Brazil: Shaping the Future: Education for a Global Responsibility, Dr. Paulo C. Moura, President, Institute of Political and Social Studies
The Philippines: Bio-Education for All: Achieving Environmentally Literate Global Citizens, Professor Liduvina R. Senora, UNA Executive Secretary, Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute
Poland: How to Improve Bio-Education, Professor Leszek Kuznicki, President, Polish Academy of Science; Democratisation and Bio-Education: Action for a Better Quality of Life, Professor Jan W. Dobrowolski, Open University AGH, Polish Academy of Sciences
Sri Lanka: Biocentric Education and Development, Kumaran Fernando, Secretary-General, United Nations Association
France: The Bio-Environment in Primary Education, Georges Martin, Agricultural Engineer, Agronomic Consultant
Russia: Problems of Biopolitics in Teaching Chemical Technology, Professor Pavel Sarkisov, Rector, Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology and Professor Michael Manakov, Director, Biotechnology Center , Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology; Humanitarian Education in Russian Technical Universities, Dr. Lidia Masalkowa, Department of Human Sciences, Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology; Bio-Education and its Contribution to Bio-Culture in the Next Millennium, Professor Inna Parkhomenko, Associate Professor of Biophysics, Moscow State University; Bio-Education: an Avenue Toward Sustainable Development in the Third Millennium, Professor Sergey A. Ushakov, Director, Earth Science Museum, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Biopolitics and the Problems of Professional Education in Russia, Natalia Kuznetsova, Financial Director, International Academy of Entrepreneurship: Bio-Education: the Realisation of Biocentric Values, Dr. Nadezhda Shulenina, Philosophy Department, Moscow Academy of Chemical Engineering
Belarus: Educational Challenges in the Post Chernobyl Years, Dr. Alexander M. Lutsko, Rector, International Sakharov College on Radioecology
Lithuania: Bio-Environmental Education: The Lithuanian Experience, Dr. Vitalij Denisov, Department of Applied Mathematics, Klaipeda University and Sergej Olenin, Center for Systems Analysis, Klaipedia University
Israel: Biopolitics and Creative Thinking: the Search for Alternatives, Professor Edna Aphek, University of Jerusalem
Slovak Republic: Distance Learning for the Environment, Jan Morovic, President, City University Bratislava
The Netherlands: Bio-Educational Reforms in Academic Curricula, Albert Th. Ten Houten, ATHMO, Wageningen
Serbia: An Environmental Approach to the Educational Process, Dr. Gordana Brun, Advisor to the Minister of Environment
Czech Republic: Raising Environmental Awareness through Education, Dr. Jan Cerovsky, President, ECOPOINT Foundation, Senior Scientist, Czech IUCN
UK: Literature and the Arts in the Biopolitics Curriculum, Dr. Richard Witt, Vice President, Society of Greek Scientists
Greece: Bio-Energy Perspectives versus Bio-Environmental Concerns, Professor Basil C. Papadias, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens; Global Balances, Professor Vlassios Sotiropoulos, Head, Energy Department, Physical Process Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Israel: Bios and the Physics of Light, Professor Andrei Rubin, Head, Department of Biophysics, Moscow State University
Biotechnology and Agriculture
Belgium: Biotechnology and Agriculture, Professor Frederic A. Lints, Catholic University of Louvain
Ethiopia: A Biotechnology Strategy for African Food and Agriculture, Dr. Ali Haribou, Project Analyst, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Greece: Ecology and Agriculture, Professor Thomas Alifakiotis, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Israel: Decreasing Industrial Pollution and Improving Agriculture in Israel, Professor J. Stefan Rokem, Department of Applied Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School
Russia: Russia and Siberia: Health Problems in Environmentally Damaged Territories, Professor Sergei I. Kolesnikov, Co-President, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
UK: Bio-Environment and Research on Health, Professor Gustav V.R. Born, Director, William Harvey Research Institute
Estonia: Environmental Co-operation and Children’s Health, Sirje Loot, Legal Advisor
Romania: Biometeorology and Quality of Life, Dr. Doina Popescu, National Institute for Hydrology and Meteorology
Iran: The Rhythm of Bios, Dr. Hossein S. Mehraban, Psychology Department, Shiraz University
Hungary: An Extravagant Promise for the Future: Clean Air Over Central and Eastern Europe, George J. Kollmann, Chief Counsellor, Ministry of Welfare
Russia: New Technology and the Professional Healthy Man, Dr. Yuri I. Voronkov, Head, Department of Cosmonaut Selection, Ministry of Health
Israel: Bio-Environmental Quality, Health and Peace, Professor Lev Fishelson, Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University
Turkey: Defining Bio-Ethics, Professor Yaman Ors, Unit of Medical Ethics, Medical Faculty, Ankara University
Greece: A Bio-Ethical Assessment of Biotechnology, Dr. Christos Yapijakis, Department of Neurology, University of Athens
Bio-Philosophy – Bio-Culture
India: Buddhism and Environmental Activism, Dr. Kamla Chowdhry, Chairperson, Center for Science and Environment
UK: Faith and Bios, Rabbi Dr. Norman Solomon, Fellow in Modern Jewish Thought, Oxford Center for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, University of Oxford; Bio-Activism: Toward a Culture of Peace, Dr.Terence M. Duffy, Director of Peace Studies, University of Ulster, Magee College
The Philippines: Love Versus Greed: a Key to the Prolongation of Life, Dr. Gloria Castro-Gatchalian, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute
Greece: Aristotle and the Bio-Environment, Efstathia Valiantza, Environmental Engineering Consultant; A Flight of Fancy: Music in the Next Millennium, Professor John Papaioannou, Advisor, Center of Ekistics
Turkey: Inspiration From Nature and Culture for a Joint Attitude Towards the 21st Century, Professor Nur Sozen, Department of Landscape Architecture, Ankara University
Czech Republic: Protecting Bios in the Next Millennium: What Does it Mean?, Dr. M. Lapka and V. Mejstrik, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Colombia: Biopolitics as a Renewed Expression of Classical Humanism, Professor Mario Calderon Rivera, f. Ambassador to Greece, Santillana Foundation for Latin America
Croatia: Rationality and Cultural Capital in Improving International Understanding, Sanjin Dragojevic, Institute for Development and International Relations